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Day, Lynda, R. Making a Way to Freedom: A History of African Americans on Long Island. New York: Empire State Books, 1997.

Mabee, Carleton. Black Education in New York State. New York: Syracuse University Press, 1979.

Verga, Christopher. Civil Rights on Long Island. New York: Arcadia Publishing, 2016.

John Shippen & Oscar Bunn: American Firsts in Golf

Demas, Lane.  Game of Privilege – An African American History of Golf.  University of North Carolina Press, 2017. 

Eikleberry, Sara Jane. “Chapter One: John M. Shippen, Jr. – Testing the Front Nine of American Golf,” Before Jackie Robinson – The Transcendent Role of Black Sporting Pioneers. University of Nebraska Press, 2017.

McDaniel, Pete. Uneven Lies – The Heroic Stories of African Americans in Golf.  The American Golfer, Inc., 2000.

Newman, Josiah.  The Official Golf Guide for 1900.  Harper’s, 1900.

Sinnette, Calvin, H.  Forbidden Fairways – African Americans and the Game of Golf. Black Classic Press, 2015.

Slovic, Lyle.  “Chapter Five – John R. Shippen, Jr. ‘The Father of African-American Golf,’” Shadows on the Green: Golfs Scandals, Tragedies, Triumphs and Offbeat Tales, lulu.com Publishing, 2020.

Curriculum Guide 


The Civil Rights Movement on Long Island: A Local History Curriculum Guide for Middle School and High School.
Edited by Dr. Alan Singer

Distributed by Hofstra Social Studies Educators
Social Studies Update, Vol. 4, No. 3 (Winter 1997-1998)



Berliner, David. “Malverne’s Bitter Legacy.” The New York Times, March 12, 1972.

Brown, Joye. “‘The Movement’ for Equality.” Newsday, November 15, 1998.

Dwyer, Kayla. “Long Island School Desegregation in the 1960s.” Newsday, January 16, 2019.

Farrell, Robert, T. “A Long-Ago Win for School Integration.” Newsday, February 25, 2011.

“Fifty Years Later: Newsday’s MLK Assassination Coverage.” Newsday, February 11, 2019.

Grant, Clinton and Syffrard, John. “Dr. Eugene Reed and the Battle for Civil Rights on Long Island” (oral history interview).

Howlett, Charles, F. “The Long Island Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s, Part One: The Struggle to Integrate Public Schools.” The Long Island Historical Journal, Vol. 8, No. 2 (Spring 1996).

Howlett, Charles, F. “The Long Island Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s, Part Two: The Struggle to Integrate Public Schools and Housing.” The Long Island Historical Journal, Vol. 9, No. 1 (Fall 1996).

Howlett, Charles F. “Teach History Students Can Touch,” Newsday, October 3, 1999.

Johnson, Thomas, A. “King’s LI Tour Brings Throngs to the Streets,” Newsday, May 13, 1965.

Jones, Rhonda. “King of New York: Northern Patronage and Support for Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, 1957-1963.” Afro-Americans in New York Life and History, August 1, 2014.

“King Scores Senate at Rally in Nassau,” The New York Times, May 13, 1965.

McGann, Thomas. “Martin Luther King, Jr. and Fire Island,” The Fire Island News, September 2, 2017.

“Princeton’s Lesson: School Integration Is Not Enough.” The New York Times, June 21, 1964.

“School Rezoning for Integration Barred by Court: Allen’s Order to Transfer Pupils in Malverne, L.I. is Declared Invalid.” The New York Times, January 6, 1964.

Scotchie, Joe. “Black History on Long Island,” Long Island Weekly, February 22, 2020.

John Shippen & Oscar Bunn: American Firsts in Golf

“A Golf Caddie Who is Destined to Become a Champion.” Windsor Review, June 10, 1896.

Brown, Leonard, “‘The Mecca’ Shady Rest Golf & Country Club,” African American Golfers Digest, February 2, 2021. 

Dear, Tony.  “The Story Behind Shinnecock Hills.” Golf World, June 10, 2018.

Dunn, Willie, “Early Courses of the United States,” Golf Illustrated, September 1934.

“Fowlis was Best Golfer,” The New York Times, July 19, 1896.

Greene, Baylis, “The Brief Golfing Life of Oscar Bunn.” The Southampton Review, Summer 2015.

Kirsch, George B. “Municipal Golf and Civil Rights in the United States, 1910-1965.” The Journal of African American History, vol. 92, no. 3, 2007, pp. 371–391, JSTOR ( Accessed 24 May 2021).

Oscar Bunn Obituary, Southampton Press, January 1918.

“Shinnecock Indian Expert Tells How Golf Should be Played,” The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, October 20, 1901. 

“Shippen Beats Wilson,” The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, August 28, 1896.

St. Laurent, Philip, “The Negro in World History – John Shippen,” Tuesday Magazine, The Oakland Tribune, April 5, 1969.

Steves, Peter F., “Shippen Broke Down a Barrier,” Golf Journal, Feb 13, 1997.

“The Great American Golfer,” Kokomo Daily Tribune, May 20, 1896.

VanHouten, Matt, “John Matthew Shippen, Jr.”  Black Past, February 21, 2011

Vohden, Danny, “Oscar Bunn Facility Brings Pride to Shinnecock Nation,” USGA.org, September 16, 2020



John Shippen & Oscar Bunn: American Firsts in Golf

Uneven Fairways – The Story of the Negro Leagues of Golf, Moxie Pictures, 2009.

John Shippen at African American United Golfers Association Tournament, Fox Movietone News Collection at the University of South Carolina, 1925.